I would love to begin by saying that a greater number of students are conducting research just for the sole purpose of acquiring their degrees in their field of studies. They involve solely for the acquisition of the degree such that they neglect or do not know the real meaning or what research is really about. In fact, there are two approaches or objectives for conducting research. The first one is the traditional way of conducting research which is conducting research for only filling the knowledge gap. This kind of people in doing the research consult only books, journals, conference papers and they try to find where the research gap is even if the research is trivial and not important the researcher will insist to conduct the research in the area. Unfortunately, most traditional researchers do this form of research, they just try to find only a gap in research especially in management and management information system, people try to find just a gap, for the reason of filling the gap and publish a paper and they say we have a research, we have available research, but I don’t think so, just to fill knowledge gap is not a big deal, hence it is not research.
On the other hand, other people feel that research is just to solve a problem. This kind of people, we can call them consultants. They look at the problem from different perspectives, they contact the company and understand the problem of the company and try to solve the problem of the company. Unfortunately, this kind of people don’t look at books as the others do, they try to write one or two books, four or five journals and that is it and they try to solve the problem from their own experience, however, they don’t look deep into literature review as the first group does. The problem here is that this person may end up repeating what others have done because they don’t know what others have done in that area and they have a major problem.
Therefore, as can be seen, the two groups are not purely right. The first group misses the problem-solving nature of every research, while the second group may end up repeating what others have done since they don’t engage in the thorough literature review. They end up not filling the knowledge gap. What then is real research?
The real research is being somewhere in between the two groups: “filling knowledge gap and solve a problem”. You can be anywhere in between but in most cases, you have a condition. The first condition is that you have to solve a problem but before solving a problem you must do REsearch. What is research? You have to search for books and papers to check if someone has solved a similar problem before, even if someone has done the research, you can criticize the person to find a knowledge gap.
Therefore, research involves solving a problem and filling a knowledge gap at the same time.
According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods.” Careful consideration of the study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998). Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations.
One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments.
Inductive research methods are used to analyze an observed event. Deductive methods are used to verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative research.
Research is conducted with a purpose to understand:
· What do organizations or businesses really want to find out?
· What are the processes that need to be followed to chase the idea?
· What are the arguments that need to be built around a concept?
· What is the evidence that will be required for people to believe in the idea or concept?
Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) proposed four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows:
1. Description: Results of research can describe the natural or social phenomena, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena. The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations. The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened. It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education.
2. Prediction: Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X. In educational research, researchers have been engaged in:
o Acquiring knowledge about factors that predict students' success in school and in the world of work
o Identifying students who are likely to be unsuccessful so that prevention programs can be instituted.
3. Improvement: This type of research is mainly concerned with the effectiveness of the intervention. The research approach includes experimental design and evaluation research.
4. Explanation: This type of research subsumes the other three: if the researchers are able to explain an educational phenomenon, it means that they can describe, can predict its consequences, and know-how to intervene to change those consequences.
Characteristics of research 1. A systematic approach must be followed for accurate data. Rules and procedures are an integral part of the process that sets the objective. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
2. Research is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
3. The data or knowledge that is derived is in real-time from actual observations in natural settings.
4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
5. Research creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more opportunities for research.
6. Research is analytical in nature. It makes use of all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
7. Accuracy is one of the most important aspects of research. The information that is obtained should be accurate and true to its nature. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the final result of the experiment.
What are the types of research? Following are the types of research methods:
Basic research: A basic research definition is data collected to enhance knowledge. The main motivation is knowledge expansion. It is non-commercial research that doesn’t facilitate in creating or inventing anything. For example, an experiment to determine a simple fact.
Applied research: Applied research focuses on analyzing and solving real-life problems. This type refers to the study that helps solve practical problems using scientific methods. Studies play an important role in solving issues that impact the overall well-being of humans. For example: finding a specific cure for a disease.
Problem-oriented research: As the name suggests, problem-oriented research is conducted to understand the exact nature of a problem to find out relevant solutions. The term “problem” refers to multiple choices or issues when analyzing a situation.
For example, the revenue of a car company has decreased by 12% in the last year. The following could be the probable causes: there is no optimum production, poor quality of a product, no advertising, or economic conditions.
Problem-solving research: This type of research is conducted by companies to understand and resolve their own problems. The problem-solving method uses applied research to find solutions to existing problems.
Qualitative research: Qualitative research is a process that is about the inquiry. It helps create an in-depth understanding of problems or issues in their natural settings. This is a non-statistical method.
Qualitative research is heavily dependent on the experience of the researchers and the questions used to probe the sample. The sample size is usually restricted to 6-10 people. Open-ended questions are asked in a manner that encourages answers that lead to another question or group of questions. The purpose of asking open-ended questions is to gather as much information as possible from the sample.
The following are the methods used for qualitative research:
1. One-to-one interview
2. Focus groups
3. Ethnographic research
4. Content/Text Analysis
5. Case study research
Learn more: Qualitative Research Methods
Quantitative research: Qualitative research is a structured way of collecting data and analyzing it to draw conclusions. Unlike qualitative methods, this method uses a computational and statistical process to collect and analyze data. Quantitative data is all about numbers.
Quantitative research involves a larger population — more people means more data. With more data to analyze, you can obtain more accurate results. This method uses closed-ended questions because the researchers are typically looking to gather statistical data.
Online surveys, questionnaires, and polls are preferable data collection tools used in quantitative research. There are various methods of deploying surveys or questionnaires.
Online surveys allow survey creators to reach large amounts of people or smaller focus groups for different types of research that meet different goals. Survey respondents can receive surveys on mobile phones, in emails, or can simply use the internet to access surveys.
Learn more: What is Quantitative Research?
What Is the Purpose of Research? There are three purposes of research:
1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, exploratory research is conducted to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a final conclusion to the perceived problem. It is conducted to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive research and data collection.
2. Descriptive: Descriptive research focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive studies are used to describe the behavior of a sample population. In a descriptive study, only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three main purposes of descriptive research are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a huge sum of money from the company profit.
3. Explanatory: Explanatory research or causal research is conducted to understand the impact of certain changes in existing standard procedures. Conducting experiments is the most popular form of casual research. For example, a study conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
To understand the characteristic of research design using research purpose here is a comparative analysis:
Research approach used
Research conducted through
Asking research questions
Asking research questions
By using research hypotheses.
When is it conducted?
Early stages of decision making
Later stages of decision making
Later stages of decision making
Learn More: Primary Research – Examples, Methods and Purpose
The research method is defined as the tools or instruments used to accomplish the goals and attributes of a study. Think of the methodology as a systematic process in which the tools or instruments will be employed. There is no use of a tool if it is not being used efficiently.
Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw appropriate conclusions.
When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better. By thoroughly collecting data from customers through surveys and questionnaires, you get important insights into brand perception and product needs. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
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