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The term guidance refers to a more specific trajectory within the field of counselling, a pathway to helping students choose a vocational or career path. Guidance is the process of helping people, to make important choices that affect their lives, such as choosing a preferred life-style. Therefore, Guidance program was established to help students adjust in their socio personal vocational and educational activities in schools. School is one of the complex social institution where by students will learn certain habits as a result of interaction with different things and different people from different socio cultural background. Guidance is important to assist students to cope with some problems and challenges as well as to adjust and improve their academic activities in schools.
Guidance is commonly understood as leadership, instruction or direction. It is also an advice or information aimed at resolving a problem or difficulty, especially as given by someone in authority. Guidance create options for students to develop fully and emphasizes strategies which enhance their potentials. Guidance encourages equity and accountability through social development decision making skills, academic achievement and school success for students, collaboration with parents and the community provide students with career and educational opportunities to ensure success in diverse and technological society. it offers, especially to students in different school level to an enormous opportunity to develop, realize their strength and weakness, as well as make personality adjustment wisely thereby leading to wise choices and productive decision. Guidance is a process of helping individuals to find solutions of their problems. Furthermore, guidance is an integral part of education; a continuous service; both generalized and specialized service, for the “whole” child and is not confined only to some specific aspects of his personality. Guidance and Counseling has been conceptualized as a programme of activities which has provided us with the gateway out of the existing numerous problems in our present age of complex scientific and technological development.
THE NEED FOR GUIDANCE AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS
Guidance is an important educational tool in shaping the orientation in a child from negative ideas that is planted in the child by his/her peers. Hence the need school for the counsellor to assist the child in moulding their future through guidance/counselling therapy. The school counsellor is seen as a role model and highly respected by students. The counsellors by their training are expected to be friends with the school child, listen to the child’s complains, short comings and proffer guidance to the child in a quest of moulding the child in the right part to take in their life pursuit.
Guidance services are presented as information services, placement services, appraisal services, vocational guidance services, counseling services, referral services, evaluation, follow-up, consultancy and research services. As a vital component of any type and any level of education, the absence of non utilization of these services in the present day school system has led to the unprecedented rise in the crime wave, violence among students, fuelled cultism, wrong career choice, and wrong subject combination among other issues. Attitudes are predispositions which have developed through long and complex process. More so, the school is expected to provide more than just teaching and instruction. A school guidance programme includes all those activities other than instructional which are carried out to render assistance to pupils in their educational, vocational, personal development and adjustment. The fundamental aim of guidance programme being the maximum development of the child, all guidance programme must be geared toward attainment of the goal. Guidance services can assist the pupils in knowing themselves-their potentialities and limitations, making appropriate choices in educational, vocational and other fields.
Academic performance is defined as knowledge acquired and skills developed in school subjects, generally indicated by marks obtained in tests in an annual examination. Academic performance is also the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests. Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement. However, academic performance involves factors such as the intellectual level, personality, motivation, skills, interests, study habits, self-esteem or the teacher-student relationship. When a gap between the academic performance and the student's expected performance occurs, it refers to a diverging performance.
THE ROLE OF GUIDANCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
Guidance in schools is that area of the schools provision that is specifically directed towards helping pupils realise their full potential in preparing for adult and working life. Guidance may be defined as a complex mix of activities, having an informative and educational role, addressed to people of any age, aiming to help individuals to identify their personal profile (capacities, abilities, competences and interests), to make decisions on the educational route and appropriate profession. Guidance/Counseling aims to guide individuals within present reality, to assist them in identifying short and long goals, in making realistic and suitable choices. The increasing importance of counseling and career guiding, in the recent years, follows the obvious need of young people to be guided through an educational system which becomes more and more complex, to meet the requirements on the global extended labor market as a result of a good academic performance. Harmonious development of young people, based on strong principles, in a suitable environment - adapted to each personality - with well-defined educational references and models for successful careers, avoiding failures, optimal integration into society, are some of the expected effects of the guidance work. Educational institutions have huge responsibilities and multiple tasks in preparing and training young people for life and the involvement of the educational staff is essential. Besides the formation of professional competences, teachers are responsible for modeling the affective, motivational, social and behavioral sides of each beneficiary of the educational system. Therefore, guidance is an activity that involves team-work and collaboration, in a network structure whose members must act on the basis of common principles, in full compliance with the needs of the target group and with the requirements and evolution of labor market.
Overall a guidance programme in school assist students to harmonize their abilities, interests and values and thereby help them to develop their full potential. All this is geared towards improving the personality of the students in all ramifications and facilitating better achievement in academic performance.
In conclusion, Guidance among students matters a lot for their overall development. Guidance services is purposeful and result oriented and since individual are self moving and striving to actualize, therefore education is the most effective instrument for such results orientation and mobility to actualize and in turn guidance services are fundamental.
Guidance is tinted towards preventing the child from indulging in negative vices and helping the child to choose the right parts in life to be successful in the pursuit of future ambition. It is necessary that the guider build the confidence of the child to trust him/her to be able to give him/her the rightful information needed in helping its client (students). This is so, because, students that trust counsellors normally open up with vital information to their counsellors which may enable the client to introduce any other person with guidance need to the counsellor.