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Attitude of a learner is a learner’s state of mind which influences personal action of the individual. Generally, attitude refers to persons’ tendency to think, feelings or preferences about an object, based on their belief about the object. It can be regarded as positive or negative and is related to likes or dislikes. On this note, attitude can be considered as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, event, activities, ideas, or just about anything in the environment.An individuals’ attitude towards any object determines the his/her judgment as good or bad, harmful or beneficial, pleasant or unpleasant, important or unimportant. Positive attitude activates the thinking, feeling and reacting components of an individual which helps to improve students’ performance while negative attitude on the other hand which is caused by limiting beliefs and negative thinking contributes to lack of motivation in learners and hinders their academic performance.
Anxiety is a complex and emotional state consisting of affective, physiological, cognitive, and motivational dimensions defined as “sadness, anxious thoughts and grief”. Anxiety, which is regarded as a complex concept that creates uneasiness and anxiety in an individual, reveals different results in terms of the effect level it creates. A high level of anxiety leads to uneasiness, while a low level of anxiety creates positive effects on learning and turns it into an impulsive power in an individual, which makes the effect stimulating and motivating.
CAUSES OF ANXIETY
Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks).
These feelings of anxiety and panic interfere with daily activities, are difficult to control, are out of proportion to the actual danger and can last a long time. You may avoid places or situations to prevent these feelings. Symptoms may start during childhood or the teen years and continue into adulthood.
Examples of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), specific phobias and separation anxiety disorder. You can have more than one anxiety disorder. Sometimes anxiety results from a medical condition that needs treatment.
The causes of anxiety disorders aren't fully understood. Life experiences such as traumatic events appear to trigger anxiety disorders in people who are already prone to anxiety. Inherited traits also can be a factor.
For some people, anxiety may be linked to an underlying health issue. In some cases, anxiety signs and symptoms are the first indicators of a medical illness. If your doctor suspects your anxiety may have a medical cause, he or she may order tests to look for signs of a problem.
Examples of medical problems that can be linked to anxiety include:
- Heart disease
- Thyroid problems, such as hyperthyroidism
- Respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma
- Drug misuse or withdrawal
- Withdrawal from alcohol, anti-anxiety medications (benzodiazepines) or other medications
- Chronic pain or irritable bowel syndrome
- Rare tumors that produce certain fight-or-flight hormones
It's possible that your anxiety may be due to an underlying medical condition if:
- You don't have any blood relatives (such as a parent or sibling) with an anxiety disorder
- You didn't have an anxiety disorder as a child
- You don't avoid certain things or situations because of anxiety
- You have a sudden occurrence of anxiety that seems unrelated to life events and you didn't have a previous history of anxiety
These factors may increase your risk of developing an anxiety disorder:
- Trauma. Children who endured abuse or trauma or witnessed traumatic events are at higher risk of developing an anxiety disorder at some point in life. Adults who experience a traumatic event also can develop anxiety disorders.
- Stress due to an illness. Having a health condition or serious illness can cause significant worry about issues such as your treatment and your future.
- Stress buildup. A big event or a buildup of smaller stressful life situations may trigger excessive anxiety — for example, a death in the family, work stress or ongoing worry about finances.
- Personality. People with certain personality types are more prone to anxiety disorders than others are.
- Other mental health disorders. People with other mental health disorders, such as depression, often also have an anxiety disorder.
- Having blood relatives with an anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders can run in families.
- Drugs or alcohol. Drug or alcohol use or misuse or withdrawal can cause or worsen anxiety.
Attitudes which are met with the concepts of “way of behaving, behavior” can be defined as a state of emotional and mental readiness that determines the individual’s tending towards the relevant event, situation, concept or object. Attitudes are revealed by a consistent balance between the three components which are named cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. In other words, attitudes are comprised as a result of the balance between the cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions which are the individual’s knowledge (cognitive element), perspective (affective element) and reaction (behavioral element) that s/he reflects positively and negatively. With being one of the important driving and active factors that lead to the emergence of an individual’s behavior, this formation can reveal its existence positively or negatively. Attitudes have a changeable and flexible structure, even though they are formed through inheritance, experience, and environmental impact. Knowing the attitudes that have facilitating effects in the formation and repetition of behaviors and habits offers the ability to predict and shape the reactions of individuals. Thus, with the affective effect they create, attitudes become a summary of the past and the shapers of future behaviors.
However, while a person may have the competencyto perform a task, that does not mean he or she will have the desire (attitude) to do so correctly. In other words, competencies give us the ability to perform, while attitudes give us the desire to perform.
INFLUENCE OF ANXIETY ON ATTITUDE PERFORMANCE
Attitude has a significant influence on students' academic life as an important affective variable of reading activity as well as having an important place in the developmental process of learners. As a matter of fact, the linear relationship between reading attitude and academic achievement confirms this fact. This situation also coincides with the linear relationship between reading skills and the abilities to understand and interpret. In that, students with positive attitudes towards reading have attained a high level of awareness of reading skills. The attitude towards reading based on the idea of developing positive attitudes in the student, which is one of the affective goals of education, can be regarded as an important affective variable that enables students to acquire and maintain reading pleasure and habit, which are the basic means of acquiring intellectual skills necessary for their future lives as well as their academic life achievements.
In other words, anxiety can either affect the student’s performance negatively or positively.
In conclusion, while a person may have the competencyto perform a task, that does not mean he or she will have the desire (attitude) to do so correctly. In other words, competencies give us the ability to perform, while attitudes give us the desire to perform.