Parental Expectation And Academic Performance Of Their Children

autor: ocean708 | 2022-02-04, 08:01 |

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Parent expectation is one factor that has been consistently related to a child's increased academic performance. While this relation between parent involvement and a child's academic performance is well established, studies have yet to examine how parent involvement increases a child's academic performance.
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Parental academic and learning expectations are regarded as a key feature in their children’s’ educational achievements. Such expectations are significantly and positively correlated with youngsters’ academic attainment at all ages and study levels. Parental academic expectations are defined as their beliefs and demands about the future academic achievements of their children.
Many investigators defined parental expectations as realistic opinions/views or logical decisions related to success that can be measured in the form of improvement in grades, reaching maximal school levels as well as class attendance. Parental expectations are generally differentiated from aspirations, where the latter consider desires, goals and wishes that parents have for their children's achievements instead of realistic expectations. The parental aspirations include their values based on social customs and standards as well as regarded by institutions as a collective victory of society
Parental expectations are generally differentiated from aspirations, where the latter consider desires, goals and wishes that parents have for their children's achievements instead of realistic expectations. Parental aspirations and expectations are theoretically discrete phrases but maybe sometimes used interchangeably as the first one refers the desire of parents while later refers the realistic beliefs of parents. The parental aspirations include their values based on social customs and standards as well as regarded by institutions as a collective victory of society. These values are measured through words like “want” and “hope”.
The children perform better and achieve higher grades when their parents are conscious about their academic achievement as compared to those, whose parents don’t take interest in their studies. High achievers were more likely to arrive from families having higher educational expectations. Such children are more helpful to others in their studies because their parents cooperate with them in every possible way and supervise them in their activities to make them able to get more success.
As parents help and support them, the tasks become easy and interesting for them and this result in the ultimate achievement in learning activities and tasks. Parents, who have high academic expectations of their children, create possible opportunities and environments to make them learn more, this enforces them to participate wholeheartedly in these learning activities resulting in extraordinary achievement.
Students meet parental expectations and their own perceptions about their studies are shaped and guide them to successfully complete their academic targets. When parents ponder importance on education and expect high performance in their child’s learning attainment retain to be extra occupied in activities and tasks relevant to studies. However, parental expectations may vary; where some parents believe that continuous effort can bring change in children’s performance whereas, others think that ability cannot be changed with effort. However, higher parental expectations than children’s actual abilities can degrade and demotivate them in case of failure to meet the expectations.
Achievement can be defined in various ways according to what actually the researcher wants to use it for. It is the ability, talent, expertise, capability, proficiency and skills for particular class performance, specific subject performance, overall performance, grades, marks, GPA, percentage etc. “Academic achievement” is hypothesized as learning proficiency and expertise and is defined as person’s comprehensive performance in education and to trust in own capabilities.
Academic self-concept may be defined as an individual’s estimation of his/her educational areas and fields or talents. More positive self-beliefs are associated with academic achievements in schools.
In Nigerian student’s academic self-concept has a strong positive relationship with their academic achievements. Furthermore, positive self-concept predicts academic achievements in school students.
Academic self-concept (ASC) fluctuates as school children move towards higher grades and class levels and it usually apt to grow in the same path of their educational attainment. However, others concluded that spell the abbreviation first (ASC) inclines to move in the contrasting way as someone moves upward in grades/class level.
Although many previous studies have confirmed a positive relationship between parental expectations and their children’s academic performance, little empirical evidence has been provided to explain the mechanisms underlying this relationship. It can also be assumed that parental expectations may influence children’s academic performance through four aspects, including children’s motivation, self-efficacy beliefs, parental involvement, and teachers’ positive evaluations.
In the present study, the mechanism underlying the relationship between high parental expectations and adolescents’ academic performance is explored based on these four proposed aspects. To begin with, high parental expectations indicate that parents place high value on their children’s achievements. Adolescents tend to internalize parental expectations and incorporate them into their own expectations for success, which in turn may contribute to their academic achievement. Parental academic expectations are positively associated with adolescents’ academic expectations. Research has also shown that parental expectations are associated with children’s engagement and motivation to achieve academic success, which in turn help enhance their academic performance.
Parental expectation is also associated with children’s self-efficacy. Researchers have posited that adolescents’ self-concept of ability can be cultivated by the context of feedback, especially feedback from important individuals around them such as parents.
Adolescents with higher parental expectations tend to have higher level of self-efficacy, since their parents are more likely to give encouragement and positive feedback about their abilities, which may contribute to adolescents’ self-concept of ability. It can be noted that the relationship between parents’ expectations and adolescents’ achievement can be mediated by adolescents’ self-concept of ability. Therefore, the positive relationship between high parental expectations and adolescents’ academic performance seems to be mediated by adolescents’ self-efficacy. Parental expectations may facilitate adolescents’ academic performance through the involvement of parents and teachers. Parents with higher expectations are more likely to set higher standards for their children’s performance, be involved in their children’s studies, and provide more supportive resources than parents with lower expectations. Prior studies have reported that parents with high expectations are more likely to engage in their children’s achievement-related activities and provide their children with more support, such as helping with their homework and monitoring their academic progress, or providing more educational resources for their children. Moreover, children may also receive more school support resources through high parental involvement, such as parental communication with teachers and parents’ attendance at school activities and meetings. Schools and teachers may hold high expectations and provide more support for children whose parents have high expectations for their academic success. It has been confirmed that supports from both parents and teachers are positively associated with adolescents’ academic performance. Therefore, high parental expectations seem to facilitate frequent support from parents and schools that, in turn help improve adolescents’ academic performance
In conclusion educational institutions particularly schools are expected to educate parents by letting them know the impact of their expectations. The parents should be guided bow to extend expectations and help their kids to develop better self-concept by projecting their successes and giving them reasonable challenges and support to overcome their deficiencies
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